Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data

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Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data seventh edition The Reference of Architectural Fundamentals

Donald Watson, FAIA, editor-in-chief Michael J. Crosbie, Ph.D., senior editor John Hancock Callender in memorium associate editors:

Donald Baerman, AIA Walter Cooper Martin Gehner, P.E. William Hall Bruce W. Hisley Richard Rittelmann, FAIA Timothy T. Taylor, AIA, ASTM

Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data

iii

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Time-saver standards for architectural design data / edited by Donald Watson, Michael J. Crosbie, John Hancock Callender—7th ed. p. cm. Rev. ed. of: Time-saver standards for architectural design data. 6th ed. c1982. Includes index. ISBN 0-07-068506-1 1. Building—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Building—Standards— Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Architectural design—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Watson, Donald, 1937. II. Crosbie, Michael J. III. Callender, John Hancock. IV. Title: Time-saver standards for architectural design data. TH151.T55 1997 721—DC21 97-18390 CIP Copyright © 1997, 1982, 1974, 1966, 1954, 1950, 1946 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

The McGraw-Hill Professional Book Group editor is Wendy Lochner. Printed and bound by Book design: Sandra Olenik, Printworks, Ltd., Madison, CT, USA. Computer graphics: Birch Bidwell Assistant: Kathleen Beckert www.Printworks-Ltd.com Cover design: Sandra Olenik and Margaret Webster-Shapiro Photography in this volume is by Donald Watson, FAIA, except as noted. Disclaimer The information in this book has been obtained from many sources, including government organizations, trade associations, manufacturers and professionals in research and in practice. The publisher, editors and authors have made every reasonable effort to make this reference work accurate and authoritative, but make no warranty, and assume no liability for the accuracy or completeness of the text, tables or illustrations or its fitness for any particular purpose. The appearance of technical data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty or guarantee by the publisher, editors or authors of any product, design, service, or process. It is the responsibility of users to apply their professional knowledge in the use of information and recommendations contained in this book, to consult original sources for more detailed information and to seek expert advice as required or as appropriate for the design and construction of buildings. Neither the authors, editors or McGraw-Hill shall have any liability to any party for any damages resulting from the use, application or adaptation of information contained in Time-Saver Standards, whether such damages be direct or indirect, or in the nature of lost profits or consequential damages. The Times-Saver Standards is published with the understanding that McGraw-Hill is not engaged in providing architectural, engineering design or other professional services.

For more information about other McGraw-Hill materials, call 1-800-2-MCGRAW, in the United States. In other countries, call your nearest McGraw-Hill office. I.S.B.N. 0-07-068506-1

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Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data

Contents • • • • •

Contributors Preface to the Seventh Edition Editors of the Seventh Edition Exemplary professional and technical reference books Introduction

PART I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

ix xiii xiv xv xvii

ARCHITECTURAL FUNDAMENTALS

Universal design and accessible design John P. S. Salmen, AIA and Elaine Ostroff Architecture and regulation Francis Ventre Bioclimatic design Donald Watson, FAIA and Murray Milne Solar control Steven V. Szokolay Daylighting design Benjamin Evans, FAIA Natural ventilation Benjamin Evans, FAIA Indoor air quality Hal Levin Acoustics: theory and applications M. David Egan, P.E., Steven Haas and Christopher Jaffe, Ph.D. History of building and urban technologies John P. Eberhard, FAIA Construction materials technology L. Reed Brantley and Ruth T. Brantley Intelligent building systems Jong-Jin Kim, Ph.D. Design of atriums for people and plants Donald Watson, FAIA Building economics David S. Haviland, Hon. AIA Estimating and design cost analysis Robert P. Charette, P.E. and Brian Bowen, FRICS Environmental life cycle assessment Joel Ann Todd, Nadav Malin and Alex Wilson Construction and demolition waste management Harry T. Gordon, FAIA Construction specifications Donald Baerman, AIA Design-Build delivery system Dana Cuff, Ph.D. Building commissioning: a guide for architects Carolyn Dasher, Nancy Benner, Tudi Haasl, and Karl Stum, P.E. Building performance evaluation Wolfgang F. E. Preiser, Ph.D. and Ulrich Schramm, Ph.D. Monitoring building performance William Burke, Charles C. Benton, and Allan Daly

1 9 21

35 63 75 85 101 117 125 139 151 157 169 183 193 199 209 215 231 239

Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data

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Contents

PART II

SUBSTRUCTURE

A-1

A1

FOUNDATIONS AND BASEMENT CONSTRUCTION

A-1

A1.1

Soils and foundation types Philip P. Page, Jr. Retaining walls Martin Gehner, P.E. Subsurface moisture protection Donald Watson, FAIA and Murray Milne Residential foundation design John Carmody and Joseph Lstiburek, P.Eng. Termite control Donald Pearman

A-3

A

A1.2 A1.3 A1.4 A1.5

A-9 A-13 A-19 A-35

B

SHELL

B-1

B1

SUPERSTRUCTURE

B-1

B1.1 B1.2

An overview of structures Design loads Martin Gehner, P.E. Structural design-wood Martin Gehner, P.E. Structural design-steel Jonathan Ochshorn Structural design-concrete Robert M. Darvas Structural design - masonry Martin Gehner, P.E. Earthquake resistant design Elmer E. Botsai, FAIA Tension fabric structures R. E. Shaeffer, P.E. and Craig Huntington, S.E.

B1.3 B1.4 B1.5 B1.6 B1.7 B1-8

B-3 B-19 B-27 B-47 B-61 B-77 B-101 B-119

B2

EXTERIOR CLOSURE

B-127

B2.1 B2.2

Exterior wall systems: an overview Thermal Insulation Donald Baerman, AIA Building movement Donald Baerman, AIA Corrosion of metals Donald Baerman, AIA Moisture control Joseph Lstiburek, P.Eng. Watertight exterior walls Stephen S. Ruggiero and James C. Myers Exterior doors and hardware Timothy T. Taylor Residential windows John C. Carmody and Stephen Selkowitz

B-129 B-143

B3

ROOFING

B-217

B3.1

Roofing systems Donald Baerman, AIA

B-219

B2.3 B2.4 B2.5 B2.6 B2.7 B2.8

vi

DESIGN DATA

Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data

B-155 B-165 B-171 B-183 B-193 B-209

Contents

B-239

B3.2 Gutters and downspouts Donald Baerman, AIA B3.3 Roof openings and accessories Donald Baerman, AIA B3.4 Radiant barrier systems Philip Fairey C C1

B-247 B-253

INTERIORS

C-1

INTERIOR CONSTRUCTIONS

C-1

C1-1 Suspended ceiling systems William Hall C1-2 Interior partitions and panels William Hall C1-3 Interior doors and hardware Timothy T. Taylor C1-4 Flexible infrastructure Vivian Loftness, AIA and Volker Hartkopf, Ph.D C2

STAIRCASES

C-3 C-13 C-23 C-35 C-49

C2-1 Stair design checklist John Templer C2-2 Stair design to reduce injuries John Templer C2-3 Stair dimensioning Ernest Irving Freese

C-51

C3

INTERIOR FINISHES

C-67

C3-1 Wall and ceiling finishes William Hall C3-2 Flooring William Hall.

C-69

C-61 C-64

C-79

D

SERVICES

D-1

D1

CONVEYING SYSTEMS

D-1

D1-1 Escalators and elevators Peter R. Smith D2

PLUMBING

D-3 D-17

D2-1 Plumbing systems Arturo De La Vega D2-2 Sanitary waste systems Arturo De La Vega D2-3 Special plumbing systems Arturo De La Vega D2-4 Solar domestic water heating Everett M. Barber, Jr.

D-19

D3

D-63

HVAC

D3-1 Energy sources for houses William Bobenhausen D3-2 Heating and cooling of houses William Bobenhausen D3-3 Energy sources for commercial buildings William Bobenhausen

D-27 D-33 D-41

D-65 D-71 D-83

Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data

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Contents

D3-4 Thermal assessment for HVAC design Richard Rittelmann, FAIA and John Holton, P.E., RA D3-5 HVAC systems for commercial buildings Richard Rittelmann, FAIA and Paul Scanlon, P.E. D3-6 HVAC specialties Catherine Coombs, CIH, CSP D4

FIRE PROTECTION

D-111 D-145 D-151

D4-1 Fire safety design Fred Malven, Ph.D. D4-2 Fire protection sprinkler systems Bruce W. Hisley D4-3 Standpipe systems Bruce W. Hisley D4-4 Fire extinguishers and cabinets Bruce W. Hisley D4-5 Special fire protection systems Bruce W. Hisley D4-6 Fire alarm systems Walter Cooper

D-153

D5

D-191

ELECTRICAL

D5-1 Electrical wiring systems Benjamin Stein D5-2 Communication and security systems Walter Cooper and Robert DeGrazio D5-3 Electrical system specialties Andrew Prager D5-4 Lighting John Bullough D5-5 Solar electric systems for residences Everett M. Barber, Jr. APPENDIX

D-161 D-171 D-175 D-179 D-187

D-193 D-199 D-219 D-231 D-255

III

1

TABLES AND REFERENCE DATA Dimensions of the human figure Insulation values Lighting tables

AP-1 AP-3 AP-9 AP-19

2

MATHEMATICS Properties of the circle Area, surfaces and volumes Areas-Perimeter ratios William Blackwell Useful curves and curved surfaces Seymour Howard, Architect Drawing accurate curves Sterling M. Palm, Architect Modular coordination Hans J. Milton and Byron Bloomfield, AIA UNITS OF MEASUREMENT AND METRICATION Units of measurement Introduction to SI metric system R.E. Shaeffer, P.E. Metrication

AP-25 AP-25 AP-29 AP-33

3

viii

D-89

Index Reader Response Form Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data

AP-36 AP-74 AP-79 AP-85 AP-85

AP-91

Contributors Contributors to the 6th edition (represented in 7th edition revision) Articles of the following authors are reprinted from the 6th edition of Time-Saver Standards (1982), acknowledging their legacy to professional knowledge represented in this volume: William Blackwell, Architectua...

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