SECRETS TO DRAWING REALISTIC FACES
D i a n a , S h i lo h a n d A y n s l e e S t u a r t 11" × 14" (28cm × 36cm)
REALISTIC FACES CARRIE STUART PARKS
NORTH LIGHT BOOKS CINCINNATI, OHIO
C A R R I E S T U A RT P A R K S is an award-winning watercolorist and internationally known forensic artist and instructor. In 1981, Carrie began working as a part time forensic artist for the North Idaho Regional Crime Lab in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho. Four years later she attended a composite drawing class taught by the FBI, and became the first composite artist in her area. Soon Carrie’s peers were asking her to share her knowledge with them. Carrie developed a sure-fire and condensed instructional course to teach anyone—whatever age or skill level—how to create realistic portraits. Carrie and her husband, Rick, travel across the nation teaching composite drawing courses to FBI and Secret Service agents, law enforcement agencies and civilian adults and children. Carrie has won numerous awards for excellence for her instruction and general career excellence. Carrie’s strikingly realistic composites have helped successfully identify and capture suspects across the country, including serial murders, rapists, white supremacists and bombers. Carrie’s composites have also been featured on America’s Most Wanted and 20/20. Rick and Carrie (Stuart) Parks reside on a 680-acre ranch in North Idaho where Carrie grew up. You may contact her by e-mail at [email protected]
or at her Web site http://www.imbris.net/~banjoart/table.html
Secrets to Drawing Realistic Faces. Copyright © 2003 by Carrie Stuart Parks. Manufactured in Singapore. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review. Published by North Light Books, an imprint of F&W Publications, Inc., 4700 East Galbraith Road, Cincinnati, Ohio 45236. (800) 289-0963. First edition. Other fine North Light Books are available from your local bookstore, art supply store or direct from the publisher. 06
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Parks, Carrie Secrets to drawing realistic faces / Carrie Stuart Parks.-- 1st ed. p.cm. Includes index. ISBN 1-58180-216-1 (alk. paper) ISBN-13: 978-1-60061-495-8 (EPUB) 1. Face in art. 2. Drawing--Technique. I. Title. NC770 .P285 2002 743.4’2--dc21 2002023509 Editors: Mike Berger and Bethe Ferguson Designer: Wendy Dunning Production Coordinator: Mark Griffin
Metric Conversion Chart to convert Inches Centimeters Feet Centimeters Yards Meters Sq. Inches Sq. Centimeters Sq. Feet Sq. Meters Sq. Yards Sq. Meters Pounds Kilograms Ounces Grams
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multiply by 2.54 0.4 30.5 0.03 0.9 1.1 6.45 0.16 0.09 10.8 0.8 1.2 0.45 2.2 28.3 0.035
D E D I C AT I O N This book is dedicated to the memory of my dad, Edwin Zaring Stuart (“Ned”), and to the everyday heroes in our lives.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I feel like I should say thank you to every person I have ever met. However, if I indulged this idea there would be no room for the rest of the text in this book. Instead, I’ll try to concentrate on the folks who made this possible, and I hope that the rest of the world will understand. The level of my gratitude is not to be measured by the location or order of the names. I am indebted to North Light Books, starting with Rachel Rubin Wolf, who gave me the chance to write this book. I am so grateful that she opened the door. Thank you to Michael Berger, who first made sense of it all, and to Bethe Ferguson and the rest of the staff who will bring this book into focus. Once again, I thank the many people listed in the back of the book for their wonderful art and beautiful faces. I thank my mom and dad for a lifetime of love and encouragement. I thank my “big” brother, Steve, and his wife Diana and daughter Shiloh for their patience. I thank my “little” brother, Scott and his gracious family, Laurie, Jeff, Bentley and
Aynslee for putting up with my camera in their faces for years (smile for Aunt Carrie). I thank Don Parks for his caring and the gift of my wonderful husband, Rick. I thank Donna, J.B. Cole, Skylar and Cortney Lindsey for their continuing love. To the many people over the years who supported us by letting us into their homes and hearts, a deeply-felt thank you is long overdue; for Boyd and Cindy Bryant, Kami and Gerry Hines, Aida and Jim Remele, Kathy and Bob Gonzales, Debbie and Pat Torok, Ed Jany, Jim and Cathy Champion, Toni Redding and Norma Shepherd. I thank my dear friends Frank and Barbara Peretti for their personal and artistic inspiration and love over the years. I am truly, eternally grateful. The best for last—I thank my wonderful husband, Rick, for his constant love, patience, friendship and artistic inspiration. Most of all, I thank the Lord Jesus for his blessings and grace.
TA B L E
CONTENTS E Drawing Eyes
! Looking the Part: Materials and Supplies
Pencils and Erasers • Other Tools
$ The Problem
Why is Drawing so Hard? • Natural Artists
SITE TOOL: Measuring • SITE TOOLS: Flattening and Optical Indexing
Train Your Mind • SHAPE TOOL: Isolate • SHAPE TOOLS: Simplify and Relate • SHAPE TOOL: Measure • SHAPE TOOL: Invert • SHAPE TOOLS: Rename and Incline • SHAPE TOOL: Negative • SHAPE TOOL: Question • SHAPE TOOL: Compare • SHAPE TOOL: Flatten
Understanding Shade Tools • SHADE TOOL: Values/Lines • SHADE TOOLS: Isolate, Squint and Compare • SHADE TOOL: Question • SHADE TOOL: Seek • Accuracy-Checking Techniques
Eyes as Shapes • Centering • Relate • Eyelid Creases • Shading and Filling the Eye • Eyebrows and Eyelashes
R Drawing Noses
The Nose as a Shape • Nose Site • Wing Site • Basic Wing Shape • Nostril Basics • Nostril Shapes • Nose Tricks
T Drawing Lips and Teeth
Parts of the Mouth • Shading the Mouth • Dealing with Teeth
U Drawing the Head
The Structure of the Head • Head Shapes • Cheeks • Chins • Necks • The Female Face • Child vs. Adult Head Shapes • Drawing Ears
I Drawing Hair
Creating Different Types of Hair • Different Hairstyles CONCLUSION INDEX
INTRODUCTION For the first ten years of my artistic career I only painted animals and used the wet-onwet watercolor technique. I began painting birds, and they all had fur rather than feathers! I now use my bird paintings for competitions.
Wings as Eagles Watercolor Collection of the Frame of Mind Gallery, Coeur d’Alene, Idaho 28" × 22" (71cm × 57cm)
ou will quickly notice in this book that I approach drawing faces from a very different direction. It might be easier for you to understand if I share some of the roads I have traveled down to get here. My background is similar to that of most artists. I was originally trained as a commercial artist in the days before computers did all the layout and lettering work. I would sit with my classmates and peer at a table full of junk that the instructor called a “still life.” It was assumed that we knew what to look for and how to render it in charcoal or pencil. The professor would wander about the room and comment, or shudder, at
our efforts. We were in the art department, which meant that we were “artists,” and as such we were supposed to somehow instinctively know how to draw. We were taught a few techniques and then left to struggle. It was believed that art could not to be taught—it was a natural talent that people were born with. Because I found drawing hard, I figured I lacked drawing talent and that was that. I decided to focus my efforts on watercolor painting. I was an impatient artist and watercolors were fast. I could draw well enough to get a few basic shapes into the painting and the rest was all technique.
Starting in 1981, I worked part time as a forensic artist for the North Idaho Regional Crime Lab in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho. I’d like to boast that I was hired because I had brilliant drawing ability like Leonardo da Vinci, crime-solving skills like Sherlock Holmes and courtroom experience like F. Lee Bailey... Well, not exactly. I was hired because my dad was the director of the crime lab, and I was the only artist he knew. My original duties were to sketch crime scenes and prepare trial exhibits for the physical evidence presented in court. One day a flyer for upcoming composite drawing classes at the FBI Academy came across Dad’s desk. Dad always thought FBI training was interesting, so in 1985 I started a two-week class in composite sketches at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. I was clueless as to exactly what this meant. I would be the first composite artist from Idaho. I learned that a composite drawing usually is a face created by combining separate facial features that the victim or witness of a crime selects from a book of faces. The composite is a form of visual communication between law enforcement agencies and the witness. It’s used to identify an unknown suspect. Upon returning to Idaho, I traveled about the state and eastern Washington sketching “the bad guys.” I had some successful identifications, and my drawings improved. In 1986 a detective approached me and asked if I would teach him how to draw composites. I thought a lot about his request for the next year. Could I teach composite sketching? If I taught, would I still be
able to sketch, or would I find myself out of work? I finally decided that I would be more effective in this field if I taught. After all, I was doing thirty to forty drawings a year for various agencies. If I taught ten students to draw, three hundred to four hundred drawings a year would be produced and more su...