Music Theory For Dummies

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Music Theory FOR

DUMmIES



by Michael Pilhofer and Holly Day

Music Theory FOR

DUMmIES



Music Theory FOR

DUMmIES



by Michael Pilhofer and Holly Day

Music Theory For Dummies® Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 111 River St. Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2007 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, 317-572-3447, fax 317-572-4355, or online at http://www.wiley. com/go/permissions. Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for the Rest of Us!, The Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The Fun and Easy Way, Dummies.com and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. For general information on our other products and services, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002. For technical support, please visit www.wiley.com/techsupport. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Control Number: 2007920019 ISBN: 978-0-7645-7838-0 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

About the Authors Michael Pilhofer: Michael Pilhofer teaches music theory and percussion at McNally Smith College of Music in St. Paul, Minnesota, where he serves as department head of the Ensembles Department. He has worked as a professional musician for more than 18 years and has toured and recorded with Joe Lovano, Marian McPartland, Kenny Wheeler, Dave Holland, Bill Holman, Wycliffe Gordon, Peter Erskine, and Gene Bertoncini. Holly Day: Holly Day has written about music for numerous publications internationally, including Computer Music Journal, ROCKRGRL, Music Alive!, Guitar One, Brutarian Magazine, Interface Technology, and Mixdown magazine. Over the past couple of decades, her writing has received an Isaac Asimov Award, a National Magazine Award, and two Midwest Writer’s Grants. Her previous books include The Insider’s Guide to the Twin Cities (3rd, 4th, and 5th Editions), Shakira, and Behind the Orange Curtain: A History of Orange County Punk Rock.

Dedication To Wolfegang and Astrid, with much love.

Authors’ Acknowledgments Special acknowledgement goes to all the musicians and composers who took the time out of their very busy schedules to share their thoughts on writing music with us. Steve Reich, Philip Glass, Irmin Schmidt, Barry Adamson, Jonathan Segel, John Hughes III, Nick Currie, Andrew Bird, Fred Sokolow, Rachel Grimes, Christian Frederickson, Pan Sonic, Mark Mallman, Leslie Hermelin, Corbin Collins, and Matt Wagner: thank you. Special thanks goes to Tom Day, whose patience both in and out of the production booth is always amazing. R.I.P., Dr. Robert Moog.

Publisher’s Acknowledgments We’re proud of this book; please send us your comments through our Dummies online registration form located at www.dummies.com/register/. Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following: Acquisitions, Editorial, and Media Development Project Editor: Corbin Collins Acquisitions Editor: Stacy Kennedy Copy Editor: Corbin Collins Technical Editor: Delbert Bowers Media Project Supervisor: Laura Moss-Hollister Media Development Specialist: Kit Malone

Composition Services Project Coordinator: Patrick Redmond Layout and Graphics: Carl Byers, Joyce Haughey, Laura Pence, Heather Ryan, Rashell Smith Special Art: W.R. Music Service/Woytek and Krystyna Rynczak Anniversary Logo Design: Richard Pacifico

Editorial Manager: Michelle Hacker

Proofreaders: Aptara, Jessica Kramer, Susan Moritz, Todd Lothery

Editorial Supervisor and Reprint Editor: Carmen Krikorian

Indexer: Aptara

Editorial Assistants: Erin Calligan Mooney, Joe Niesen, David Lutton, Leeann Harney Cartoons: Rich Tennant (www.the5thwave.com)

Publishing and Editorial for Consumer Dummies Diane Graves Steele, Vice President and Publisher, Consumer Dummies Joyce Pepple, Acquisitions Director, Consumer Dummies Kristin A. Cocks, Product Development Director, Consumer Dummies Michael Spring, Vice President and Publisher, Travel Kelly Regan, Editorial Director, Travel Publishing for Technology Dummies Andy Cummings, Vice President and Publisher, Dummies Technology/General User Composition Services Gerry Fahey, Vice President of Production Services Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services

Contents at a Glance Introduction .................................................................1 Part I: Rhythm: Keeping the Beat ..................................7 Chapter 1: What Is Music Theory Anyway? ....................................................................9 Chapter 2: Counting Out Notes.......................................................................................15 Chapter 3: Giving It a Rest ..............................................................................................31 Chapter 4: Time Signatures .............................................................................................41 Chapter 5: Naturalizing the Beat ....................................................................................57 Chapter 6: Tempo and Dynamics ...................................................................................65

Part II: Melody: The Part You Hum ..............................77 Chapter 7: The Musical Staff ...........................................................................................79 Chapter 8: Instrument Tone and Color ..........................................................................93 Chapter 9: Half Steps, Whole Steps, Sharps, and Flats ................................................99

Part III: Harmony: Fleshing It Out .............................105 Chapter 10: Intervals......................................................................................................107 Chapter 11: Key Signatures and the Circle of Fifths...................................................131 Chapter 12: The Major and Minor Scales ....................................................................147 Chapter 13: Building Chords .........................................................................................161 Chapter 14: Chord Progressions...................................................................................193 Chapter 15: Cadence ......................................................................................................207

Part IV: Form: How It’s Shaped..................................215 Chapter 16: The Elements of Form...............................................................................217 Chapter 17: Classical Forms..........................................................................................229 Chapter 18: Popular Forms ...........................................................................................241

Part V: The Part of Tens ............................................249 Chapter 19: Six Most Frequently Asked Questions About Music Theory ...............251 Chapter 20: Ten Cool and Useful Resources ...............................................................255 Chapter 21: Nine Music Theorists You Should Know About ....................................261

Appendix A: How to Use the CD .................................269 Appendix B: Chord Chart ...........................................277 Appendix C: Glossary ................................................315 Index .......................................................................319

Table of Contents Introduction ..................................................................1 About This Book.......

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