English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate With answers

English Vocabulary in Use CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS PUBLISHED BY T H E PRESS SYNDICATE O F T H E - pdf free download

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English Vocabulary in Use

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

PUBLISHED BY T H E PRESS SYNDICATE O F T H E UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom C A M B R I D G E LJNlVtRSlTY PRESS

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK www.cup.cam.ac.uk 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-421 1, USA www.cup.org 1 0 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourne 3166, Australia Ruiz de Alarc6n 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain

0 Cambridge University Press 1994 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 1994 Ninth printing 1999 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0 521 423961

Contents Acknowledgements Using this book

Introduction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Learning vocabulary - general advice Learning vocabulary - aids to learning Organising a vocabulary notebook The names of English language words Using your dictionary Revising vocabulary Formal and informal words

Word formation 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Suffixes (e.g. actor, permission, modernise) Prefixes (e.g. over-worked, exhale) Roots (e.g. impress, pressure, expression) Abstract nouns (e.g. faith, hope and love) Compound adjectives (e.g. well-dressed, time-consuming) Compound nouns - combinations of two nouns (e.g. baby-sitter, youth hostel) Compound nouns - combinations of verb + preposition (e.g. drawback, input) Words with interesting origins - people and places (e.g. hooligan, denim) Words with interesting origins - from other languages (e.g. bistro, rucksack) Onomatopoeic words - words that sound like their meaning (e.g. grumble, smash) Words commonly mispronounced (e.g. worry, cough) Homonyms - words pronounced and/or spelt the same (e.g. row, row; bow, bough)

Connecting and linking 20 21 22 23 24 25

Time (e.g. as soon as, while, afterwards) Condition (e.g. unless, provided that) Cause, reason, purpose and result (e.g. owing to, with the aim of, as a result) Concession and contrast (e.g. although, on the other hand) Addition (e.g. in addition, furthermore, besides) Text-referring words (e.g. issue, problem)

Countables and uncountables 26 27 28 29 30

Uncountable words (e.g. information, advice) Words that only occur in the plural (e.g. scissors) Countable and uncountable with different meanings (e.g. paper and a paper) Collective nouns (e.g. a flock of sheep) Making uncountable words countable (e.g. a loaf of bread)

English Vocabulary in Use

iii

Topics 3

31 Countries, nationalities and languages 32 The weather 33 Describing people - appearance 34 Describing people - character 35 Relationships 36 At home 37 Everyday problems 38 Global problems 39 Education 40 Work 41 Sport 42 The arts 43 Food 44 The environment 45 Towns 46 The natural world 47 Clothes 48 Health and medicine 49 Travel 50 Holidays 51 Numbers and shapes 52 Science and technology 53 The press and media 54 Politics and public institutions 55 Crime 56 Money - buying, selling and paying Notional concepts 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66

Number, quantity, degree and intensity Time Distances and dimensions Obligation, need, possibility and probability Sound and light Possession, giving and lending Movement and speed Texture, brightness, weight and density Success, failure and difficulty Containers and contents (e.g. box of matches, jar of jam)

Feelings and actions 67 68 69 70 71 72 73

iv

Belief and opinion Pleasant and unpleasant feelings Like, dislike and desire Speaking The six senses What your body does What animals do

English Vocabulary in Use

Fixed expressions 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84

Idioms and fixed expressions - general (different types; advice on their use) Everyday expressions (e.g. as I was saying, that reminds me) Similes - as...as... / like ... (e.g as white as a sheet) Binomials (e.g. odds and ends, spick and span) Idioms describing people (e.g. to have a heart of gold) Idioms describing feelings or mood (e.g. to be in a black mood, to shake in your shoes) Idioms connected with problematic situations (e.g. to take the bull by the horns) Idioms connected with praise and criticism (e.g. she's streets ahead of the other girls, the world's worst) Idioms connected with using language (e.g. to talk behind somebody's back, to put in a nutshell) Idioms - miscellaneous Proverbs (e.g. Many hands make light work.)

Phrasal verbs and verb-based expressions 85 86 87 88 89 90 91

Expressions with do and make Expressions with bring and take Expressions with get Expressions with set and put Expressions with come and go Expressions with look Miscellaneous expressions (with break, run, turn, let, etc.)

Varieties of English 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

Headline English (e.g. boost, axe) US English (e.g. elevator, downtown) Other Englishes Slang (e.g. copper, bread) The language of notices (e.g. refrain, trespassers) Words and gender (e.g. waiter/waitress, chairperson, headteacher) Abbreviations (e.g. UN, OPEC, lab) New words in English Discourse markers (e.g. Right! Mind you!)

Key

202

List of phonetic symbols Index

270

271

English Vocabulary in Use

Acknowledgements We are particularly grateful to Jeanne McCarten and Geraldine Mark at Cambridge University Press who provided us with so much clear-sighted help and creative guidance at all stages during the writing of this book. We should also like to thank Stuart Redman for his thorough and invaluable report on the initial manuscript. We are grateful to students and staff at various institutions who assisted in piloting the materials: Jon Butt and Elaine Smith, International House, London; Nick Kenny, International Language Academy, Cambridge; Brigitte Marrec, UniversitP Paris X, France; Suzanne Pilot, LycPe Blaise Pascal, Longuenesse, France; Tony Robinson, Eurocentre, Cambridge; Ian Scott, Centre for English Language Education, University of Nottingham; Karen Thompson, International House, Toulouse, France; Clare West, English Language Centre, Hove. Lastly, we thank N6irin Burke at CUP who took over the management of the manuscript in its final stages. The authors and publishers would like t o thank the following for permission t o reproduce copyright material in English Vocabulaty in Use. While every effort has been made, it has not been possible t o identify the sources of all the material used and in such cases the publishers would welcome information from the copyright holders. p.2: extract from 7'he English Language by David Crystal (Penguin Books, 1988), copyright

0 David Crystal, reproduced by permission of Penguin Books Ltd.; p.10: definition of 'malignant' from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Currefit English, edited by A. S. Hornby (fourth edition l989), reproduced by permission of Oxford University Press; p.10: definition of 'hairy' and p.11: definition of 'casual' both from Collins C O B U I L D English Language Dictionary (1987), reproduced by permission of HarperCollins Publishers; p.90: extract from Fodor's Ireland, Fodor's Travel Publication (1989); p.92: extract from The Cambridge Encyclopedia by David Crystal (1991), Cambridge University Press. Illustrations by Amanda MacPhail, Kathy Baxendale and Ken Brooks.

English Vocabulary in Use

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Using this book Why was this book written? It was written to help you to improve your English vocabulary. It will help you to learn not only the meanings of words but also how they are used. You can use this book either with a teacher or for self-study.

How is the book organised? The book has 100 two-page units. In most units, the left-hand page explains the words and expressions to be studied in that unit. Where appropriate, it gives information about how the words are used as well as their meaning. The right-hand page checks that you have understood the information on the left-hand page by giving you a series of exercises practising what you have just learnt. Occasionally the right-hand page will also teach you some more new words. There is a key at the back of the book. The key does not always simply give you one right answer. It sometimes also comments on the answers and will help you learn more about the words studied in the unit. There is an index at the back of the book. This lists all the words and phrases covered in the book and refers you to the units where these words or phrases are discussed. The index also tells you how difficult and unusual words are pronounced. It uses the International Phonetic Alphabet to do this and the symbols you need to know are listed at the beginning of the index.

How should I use this book? The book is divided into a number of sections. Complete the seven introductory units first. These units not only teach you some useful new vocabulary but they also help you with useful techniques for vocabulary learning in general. After completing those units, you might want t o work straight through the book or you might prefer t o d o the units in any order that suits you.

W h a t else do I need in order to work with this book? You need some kind of vocabulary notebook or file where you can write down the new words you are learning. (See Unit 3 for advice on how to d o this.) You also need to have access to a couple of good dictionaries. This book selects the words that are most important for you to learn at your level and it gives you the most important information about those words but you will sometimes need to refer to a dictionary as well for extra information about meaning and usage. Firstly, you need an English-English dictionary for foreign learners. Good ones are The Cambridge International Dictionary of English, the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary and the Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary, for example. Secondly, you will also...

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