Database System Concepts, 6th Edition

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DATABASE SYSTEM CONCEPTS SIXTH EDITION

Abraham Silberschatz Yale University

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Henry F. Korth Lehigh University

S. Sudarshan Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

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DATABASE SYSTEM CONCEPTS, SIXTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Previous editions © 2006, 2002, and 1999. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ISBN 978-0-07-352332-3 MHID 0-07-352332-1 Global Publisher: Raghothaman Srinivasan Director of Development: Kristine Tibbetts Senior Marketing Manager: Curt Reynolds Project Manager: Melissa M. Leick Senior Production Supervisor: Laura Fuller Design Coordinator: Brenda A. Rolwes Cover Designer: Studio Montage, St. Louis, Missouri (USE) Cover Image: © Brand X Pictures/PunchStock Compositor: Aptara®, Inc. Typeface: 10/12 Palatino Printer: R. R. Donnelley

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All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Silberschatz, Abraham. Database system concepts / Abraham Silberschatz. — 6th ed. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-07-352332-3 (alk. paper) 1. Database management. I. Title. QA76.9.D3S5637 2011 005.74—dc22 2009039039 The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a Web site does not indicate an endorsement by the authors of McGraw-Hill, and McGraw-Hill does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

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In memory of my father Joseph Silberschatz my mother Vera Silberschatz and my grandparents Stepha and Aaron Rosenblum Avi Silberschatz

To my wife, Joan my children, Abigail and Joseph and my parents, Henry and Frances Hank Korth

To my wife, Sita my children, Madhur and Advaith and my mother, Indira

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Contents Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

Introduction

Database-System Applications 1 Purpose of Database Systems 3 View of Data 6 Database Languages 9 Relational Databases 12 Database Design 15 Data Storage and Querying 20 Transaction Management 22 Database Architecture 23

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PART ONE Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

1.10 Data Mining and Information Retrieval 25 1.11 Specialty Databases 26 1.12 Database Users and Administrators 1.13 History of Database Systems 29 1.14 Summary 31 Exercises 33 Bibliographical Notes 35

RELATIONAL DATABASES

Introduction to the Relational Model

Structure of Relational Databases 39 Database Schema 42 Keys 45 Schema Diagrams 46 Relational Query Languages 47

Chapter 3

2.6 Relational Operations 48 2.7 Summary 52 Exercises 53 Bibliographical Notes 55

Introduction to SQL

3.1 Overview of the SQL Query Language 57 3.2 SQL Data Definition 58 3.3 Basic Structure of SQL Queries 63 3.4 Additional Basic Operations 74 3.5 Set Operations 79 3.6 Null Values 83

3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10

Aggregate Functions 84 Nested Subqueries 90 Modification of the Database 98 Summary 104 Exercises 105 Bibliographical Notes 112

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vi

Contents

Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Intermediate SQL

Join Expressions 113 Views 120 Transactions 127 Integrity Constraints 128 SQL Data Types and Schemas

Chapter 5

4.6 Authorization 143 4.7 Summary 150 Exercises 152 Bibliographical Notes 156 136

Advanced SQL

5.1 Accessing SQL From a Programming Language 157 5.2 Functions and Procedures 173 5.3 Triggers 180 5.4 Recursive Queries** 187

Chapter 6

Formal Relational Languages Apago PDF Query Enhancer

6.1 The Relational Algebra 217 6.2 The Tuple Relational Calculus 239 6.3 The Domain Relational Calculus 245

PART TWO Chapter 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

5.5 Advanced Aggregation Features** 192 5.6 OLAP** 197 5.7 Summary 209 Exercises 211 Bibliographical Notes 216

6.4 Summary 248 Exercises 249 Bibliographical Notes 254

DATABASE DESIGN

Database Design and the E-R Model

Overview of the Design Process 259 The Entity-Relationship Model 262 Constraints 269 Removing Redundant Attributes in Entity Sets 272 7.5 Entity-Relationship Diagrams 274 7.6 Reduction to Relational Schemas 283 7.7 Entity-Relationship Design Issues 290

7.8 Extended E-R Features 295 7.9 Alternative Notations for Modeling Data 304 7.10 Other Aspects of Database Design 310 7.11 Summary 313 Exercises 315 Bibliographical Notes 321

Contents

Chapter 8

Relational Database Design

8.1 Features of Good Relational Designs 323 8.2 Atomic Domains and First Normal Form 327 8.3 Decomposition Using Functional Dependencies 329 8.4 Functional-Dependency Theory 338 8.5 Algorithms for Decomposition 348

Chapter 9

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8.6 Decomposition Using Multivalued Dependencies 355 8.7 More Normal Forms 360 8.8 Database-Design Process 361 8.9 Modeling Temporal Data 364 8.10 Summary 367 Exercises 368 Bibliographical Notes 374

Application Design and Development

9.1 Application Programs and User Interfaces 375 9.2 Web Fundamentals 377 9.3 Servlets and JSP 383 9.4 Application Architectures 391 9.5 Rapid Application Development 396

9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9

Application Performance 400 Application Security 402 Encryption and Its Applications Summary 417 Exercises 419 Bibliographical Notes 426

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DATA STORAGE AND QUERYING

Storage and File Structure

10.1 Overview of Physical Storage Media 429 10.2 Magnetic Disk and Flash Storage 432 10.3 RAID 441 10.4 Tertiary Storage 449 10.5 File Organization 451

Chapter 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7

10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9

Organization of Records in Files Data-Dictionary Storage 462 Database Buffer 464 Summary 468 Exercises 470 Bibliographical Notes 473

457

Indexing and Hashing

Basic Concepts 475 Ordered Indices 476 B+ -Tree Index Files 485 B+ -Tree Extensions 500 Multiple-Key Access 506 Static Hashing 509 Dynamic Hashing 515

11.8 Comparison of Ordered Indexing and Hashing 523 11.9 Bitmap Indices 524 11.10 Index Definition in SQL 528 11.11 Summary 529 Exercises 532 Bibliographical Notes 536

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Contents

Chapter 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5

Query Processing

Overview 537 Measures of Query Cost 540 Selection Operation 541 Sorting 546 Join Operation 549

Chapter 13

12.6 Other Operations 563 12.7 Evaluation of Expressions 567 12.8 Summary 572 Exercises 574 Bibliographical Notes 577

Query Optimization

13.1 Overview 579 13.2 Transformation of Relational Expressions 582 13.3 Estimating Statistics of Expression Results 590 13.4 Choice of Evaluation Plans 598

PART FOUR

13.5 Materialized Views** 607 13.6 Advanced Topics in Query Optimization** 612 13.7 Summary 615 Exercises 617 Bibliographical Notes 622

TRANSACTION MANAGEMENT

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Chapter 14

Transactions

14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4

Transaction Concept 627 A Simple Transaction Model 629 Storage Structure 632 Transaction Atomicity and Durability 633 14.5 Transaction Isolation 635 14.6 Serializability 641

Chapter 15 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7

14.7 Transaction Isolation and Atomicity 646 14.8 Transaction Isolation Levels 648 14.9 Implementation of Isolation Levels 650 14.10 Transactions as SQL Statements 653 14.11 Summary 655 Exercises 657 Bibliographical Notes 660

Concurrency Control

Lock-Based Protocols 661 Deadlock Handling 674 Multiple Granularity 679 Timestamp-Based Protocols 682 Validation-Based Protocols 686 Multiversion Schemes 689 Snapshot Isolation 692

15.8 Insert Operations, Delete Operations, and Predicate Reads 697 15.9 Weak Levels of Consistency in Practice 701 15.10 Concurrency in Index Structures** 704 15.11 Summary 708 Exercises 712 Bibliographical Notes 718

Contents

Chapter 16 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6

Recovery System

Failure Classification 721 Storage 722 Recovery and Atomicity 726 Recovery Algorithm 735 Buffer Management 738 Failure with Loss of Nonvolatile Storage 743

PART FIVE Chapter 17

16.7 Early Lock Release and Logical Undo Operations 744 16.8 ARIES** 750 16.9 Remote Backup Systems 756 16.10 Summary 759 Exercises 762 Bibliographical Notes 766

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

Database-System Architectures

17.1 Centralized and Client – Server Architectures 769 17.2 Server System Architectures 772 17.3 Parallel Systems 777 17.4 Distributed Systems 784

17.5 Network Types 788 17.6 Summary 791 Exercises 793 Bibliographical Notes 794

Apago PDF Enhancer Chapter 18 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7

Parallel Databases

Introduction 797 I/O Parallelism 798 Interquery Parallelism 802 Intraquery Parallelism 803 Intraoperation Parallelism 804 Interoperation Parallelism 813 Query Optimization 814

Chapter 19

18.8 Design of Parallel Systems 815 18.9 Parallelism on Multicore Processors 817 18.10 Summary 819 Exercises 821 Bibliographical Notes 824

Distributed Databases

19.1 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Databases 825 19.2 Distributed Data Storage 826 19.3 Distributed Transactions 830 19.4 Commit Protocols 832 19.5 Concurrency Control in Distributed Databases 839 19.6 Availability 847

19.7 Distributed Query Processing 19.8 Heterogeneous Distributed Databases 857 19.9 Cloud-Based Databases 861 19.10 Directory Systems 8...

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