Business Vocabulary in Use: Intermediate (Cambridge Professional English)

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Business Vocabulary

Bill Muscull

Business Vocabulary in Use

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

PUBLISHED BY T H E PRESS SYNDICATE OF T H E UNIVERSITY O F C A M B R I D G E

The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 100114211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia Ruiz de Alarc6n 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa

O Cambridge University Press 2002

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2002 Second printing 2002 Third printing 2002 Printed in Italy by G. Canale & C. Typeface Sabon 10113pt. System QuarkXPressB [GECKO

LID]

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0 521 77529 9

Contents INTRODUCTION JOBS, PEOPLE AND ORGANIZATIONS

0 Work and jobs A What do you do? B Word combinations with 'work' C Types of job and types of work

a

A Health and safety B Bullying and harassment C Discrimination

a

Recruitment and selection A Recruitment B Applying for a job C Selection procedures

Skills and qualifications A Education and training B Skilled and unskilled C The right person

Pay and benefits

A Wages, salary and benefits B Compensation 1 C Compensation 2

People and workplaces A Employees and management B Management and administration C Labour D Personnel and human resources

0 The career ladder A A job for life B A job for now C In-house staff or freelancers? D Losing your job

Managers, executives and directors

A Managers and executives: UK B Managers and executives: US

Businesspeople and business leaders

Ways o f working

A Old and new ways B Nice work if you can get it C Nature of work

a

Problems at work

A Businesspeople and entrepreneurs B Leaders and leadership C Magnates, moguls and tycoons

m Organizations 1 A Business and businesses B Commerce

C Enterprise D Word combinations with 'enterprise'

Organizations 2 A B C D

Self-employed people and Limited liability Mutuals Non-profit organizations

PRODUCTION Manufacturing and services A Industry B Manufacturing and services C Countries and their industries

mThe development process A Market research B Development and launch

Business Vocabulary in Use

Innovation and invention

38

A Innovation and invention B Research and technology C Patents and intellectual property

(g Making things

40

44

A Advertising B The sales force C Promotional activities

The Internet and e-commerce 46

4

Business Vocabulary in Use

A The Internet B Clicks-and-mortar C B2B, B2C and B2G

MONEY 48

A Companies and markets B More word combinations with 'market' C Competitors and competition

A Marketing B The four Ps C Market orientation

A Distribution: wholesalers, retailers and customers B Shops C Direct marketing

Promotion

A Customers and clients B Buyers and sellers C The market D Word combinations with 'market'

Marketing and market orientation

Price

Place

MARKETING

Markets and competitors

a

42

A Total quality management B Continuous improvement C Benchmarking D Business process re-engineering

Buyers, sellers and the market

52

A Pricing B Word combinations with 'price' C Upmarket and downmarket D Mass markets and niches

A Inputs B Suppliers and outsourcing C Just-in-time

Business philosophies

Products and brands

A Word combinations with 'product' B Goods C Brands and branding

A Products B Mass production C Capacity and output

Materials and suppliers

a

Sales and costs A Sales 1 B Sales 2 C Costs D Margins and mark-ups

50

Profitability and unprofitability A Profitable and unprofitable products B Budgets and expenditure C Economies of scale and the learning curve

64

Getting paid

Financial centres

66 A B C D

A Shipping and billing B Trade credit C Accounts

Assets, liabilities and the balance sheet A B C D

68 A Market indexes B Market activity: good times ... C ... and bad times

Assets Depreciation Liabilities Balance sheet

The bottom line

a 70

72

EE) Indicators 2

A Capital B Share capital C Loan capital D Security E Leverage

Success and failure A B C D

A B C D

74

a 76

88

Ethics A Code of ethics B Ethical standards C Ethical investment

1

FINANCE AND THE ECONOMY A Traditional banking B New ways of banking C Personal investing

Wrongdoing and corruption

A Wrongdoing B Bribery and corruption C Fraud and embezzlement

A Stakes and joint ventures B Mergers and takeovers C Conglomerates

Personal finance

Going up Going down Peaks and troughs Boom and bust

DOING THE RIGHT THING

Cash mountains and surpluses Debt and debt problems Turnarounds and bailouts Bankruptcy

Mergers, takeovers and sel I-offs

Indicators 1

A Finance and economics B Inflation and unemployment C Trade D Growth and GDP

A Accounts B Results

Share capital and debt

Financial centres Stock markets Other financial markets Derivatives

78

PERSONAL SKILLS Time and time management

92

A Timeframes and schedules B Projects and project management C Time tips

Business Vocabulary in Use

5

Stress and stress management

94

A When work is stimulating B When stimulation turns to stress C Downshifting

Leadership and management styles

98

100

A Names B Business cards C Dress

102

10 4

A Phoning scenario B Asking to speak to someone 1 C Voicemail

6

Business Vocabulary in Use

A Email B Email expressions C Email abbreviations

BUSINESS SKILLS 116

m chairperson Meetings 2: the role of the

11 8

A Before the meeting I3 During the meeting C Follow-up

A Telephones and beyond B Phone, call and ring C Numbers D Doing things over the phone

Telephoning 2: getting through

A Sending faxes I3 Fax layout C Receiving faxes

A Word combinations with 'meeting' B Types of meeting C How was the meeting?

TELEPHONE, FAX AND EMAlL Telephoning 1: phones and numbers

110

Faxes

Meetings 1: types of meeting

A Entertainment and hospitality B Time C Cross-cultural communication

a

Telephoning 4 : arrangements

a

A Cultures and culture B Distance and familiarity

m Business across cultures 3

108

A Making arrangements B Closing the conversation C Changing arrangements

CULTURE

Business across cultures 2

Telephoning 3: messages

A Asking to speak to someone 2 B Giving and taking messages C Spelling names D Taking messages: checking information

96

A Leadership I3 Modern management styles C Empowerment

Business across cultures 1

a

a 106

Meetings 3: points of view

A Opening the meeting B Inviting people to speak C Making your point

120

m Meetings 4: agreement and disagreement

Negotiations 3: furthering negotiations

122 A B C D

A Discussion without argument? B Agreeing

C Disagreeing

Meetings 5: discussion techniques

124

Win-win Probing Proposal and counter-proposal Trade-offs

Negotiations 4: difficulties

A Hedging B Checking understanding, interrupting,

A Confrontation B Confrontational negotiating tactics

referring back C Agreement, consensus or compromise? D Concluding

C Dealing with problems

a

Negotiations 5: reaching agreement

Presentations 1: preparation and introduction 126

A Types of presentation B Dos and don'ts: preparation

A B C D

138

140

A Deadlock and mediators B Agreements and contracts C Checking the deal

Answer key

C Key phrases: introduction

Presentations 2: main part

136

128

Index

Dos and don'ts: timing Dos and don'ts: voice Rapport with the audience Key phrases: main part

Presentations 3: closing and questions

130

A Dos and don'ts: body language B Visual aids

C Key phrases: closing and dealing with questions

Negotiations 1: situations and negotiators

132

A Types of negotiation B Word combinations with 'negotiations'

C Bargaining

(g Negotiations 2: preparing

134

A Preparing to negotiate B Negotiating scenario

C Negotiating styles

Business Vocabulary in Use

7

Who is this book for? Business Vocabulary in Use is designed to help intermediate and upper-intermediate learners of business English improve their business vocabulary. It is for people studying English before they start work and for those already working who need English in their job. Apart from improving your business vocabulary, the book also helps you to develop the language needed for important business communication skills. You can use the book on your own for self-study, or with a teacher in the classroom, one-to-one or in groups.

How is the book organised? The book has 66 two-page units. The first 46 of these units are thematic and look at the vocabulary of business areas such as people, organisations, production, marketing, finance and business-related economics. The other 20 units focus on the language of skills you need in business, such as those for presentations, meetings, telephoning and negotiations. The left-hand page of each unit explains new words and expressions, and the righthand page allows you to check and develop your understanding of them and how they are used through a series of exercises. There is cross-referencing between units to show connections between the same word or similar words used in different contexts. There is an answer key at the back of the book. Most of the exercises have questions with only one correct answer. But some of the exercises, including the Over to you activities at the end of each section (see below), are designed for writing and/or discussion about yourself and your own organisation. There is also an index. This lists all the new words and phrases introduced in the book and gives the unit numbers where they appear. The index also tells you how the words and expressions are pronounced.

The left-hand page This page introduces new vocabulary and expressions for each thematic or skills area. The presentation is divided into a number of sections indicated by letters: A,...

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