Automotive Technology: Principles, Diagnosis, and Service (4th Edition)

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AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Principles, Diagnosis, and Service F O U R T H


James D. Halderman

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Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2003, 1999 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Education, 1 Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, Pearson Education, 1 Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps.











ISBN-10: 0-13-254261-7 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-254261-6


Number of chapters increased from 103 to 130.

Many long chapters were split and content was reorganized to make teaching and learning easier.

New chapters include: Chapter 17 – Preventive Maintenance and Service Procedures Chapter 19 – Diesel Engine Operation and Diagnosis Chapter 20 – Coolant Chapter 22 – Engine Oil Chapter 27 – In-Vehicle Engine Service Chapter 36 – Gaskets and Sealants Chapter 37 – Engine Assembly and Dynamometer Testing Chapter 49 – CAN and Network Communications Chapter 66 – Gasoline Chapter 67 – Alternative Fuels Chapter 68 – Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels Chapter 79 – Gasoline Direct Injection Systems Chapter 80 – Electronic Throttle Control Systems Chapter 108 – Electronic Stability Control Systems Chapter 110 – Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems


This comprehensive textbook is divided into sections that correspond to the eight areas of certifications as specified by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) and the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation (NATEF). The areas of the ASE material certification test are listed in the objectives at the beginning of each chapter, and all laboratory worksheets are correlated to the NATEF Task List.

A COMPLETE INSTRUCTOR AND STUDENT SUPPLEMENT PACKAGE This book is accompanied by a full set of instructor and student supplements. Please see page v for a detailed list of supplements.

A FOCUS ON DIAGNOSIS AND PROBLEM SOLVING The primary focus of this textbook is to satisfy the need for problem diagnosis. Time and again, the author has heard that technicians need more training in diagnostic procedures and skill development. To meet this need and to help illustrate how real problems are solved, diagnostic stories are included throughout. Each new topic covers the parts involved as well as their purpose, function, and operation, and how to test and diagnose each system. The following pages highlight the unique core features that set this book apart from other automotive textbooks.

Chapter 115 – Electronic Suspension Systems Chapter 127 – Automatic Transmission/Transaxle Principles Chapter 128 – Hydraulic Components and Control Systems Chapter 129 – Automatic Transmission/Transaxle Diagnosis and In-Vehicle Service Chapter 130 – Automatic Transmission/Transaxle Unit Repair 

Over 300 new color photos and line drawings.

New design, showing major and minor headings, is clearer and makes it easier to grasp important information.





Careers in the Automotive Service Area


Lightning Damage 1

Automotive Background and Overview


Working as a Professional Service Technician


Careers in the Automotive Service Industry


Technician Certification


Starting a Career in the Automotive Industry




OBJECTIVES: After studying Chapter 1, the reader will be able to: • Explain the evolution of the automobile. • Discuss the major components of a vehicle. • Describe the evolution of engines. • List the common components of most vehicles. • List the eight areas of automotive service according to ASE/NATEF. KEY TERMS: Air filter 5 • Body 2 • Body-on-frame (BOF) 3 • Carbon monoxide (CO) 5 • Catalytic converter 5 • Chassis 2 • Coolant 5 • Drive shaft 5 • Double overhead camshaft (DOHC) 4 • Evaporative emission system (EVAP) 5 • Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) 5 • Flathead 4 • Frames 3 • Hydrocarbon (HC) 5 • Ignition control module (ICM) 5 • Inline engine 4 • Intake manifold 5 • Internal combustion engine 4 • Malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) 5 • Manufacturer’s suggested retail price (MSRP) 4 • OBD-II 5 • Oil filter 5 • Oil galleries 5 • Oil pan 5 • Oil pump 5 • Oil sump 5 • Overhead camshaft (OHC) 4 • Overhead valve (OHV) 4 • Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) 5 • PCV valve 5 • Pillars 3 • Positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) 5 • Propeller shaft 5 • Radiator 5 • Scan tool 5 • Self-propelled vehicle 1 • Single overhead camshaft (SOHC) 4 • Thermostat 5 • Transaxle 6 • Transfer case 6 • Unibody 3 • Universal joints (U-joints) 5 • Water jackets 5 • Water pump 5


Henry Ford (1863–1947) built his first car, called the Quadricycle. SEE FIGURE 1–1.


About 4,200 total automobiles were sold, including:

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND For centuries, man either walked or used animals to provide power for transportation. After the invention of electric, steam, and gasoline propulsion systems, people used self-propelled vehicles, which are vehicles that moved under their own power. Major milestones in vehicle development include: 1876

The OTTO four-stroke cycle engine was developed by a German engineer, Nikolaus Otto.


The first automobile was powered by an OTTO cycle gasoline engine designed by Karl Friedrick Beary (1844–1929).


Rudolf Diesel (1858–1913) received a patent for a compression ignition engine. The first diesel engine was built in 1897.

REAL WORLD FIXES present students with actual automotive service scenarios and show how these common (and sometimes uncommon) problems were diagnosed and repaired.

• 40% were steam powered • 38% were battery/electric powered • 22% were gasoline engine powered 1902

Oldsmobile, founded by Ransom E. Olds (1864–1950), produced the first large-scale, affordable vehicle.


William Durant (1861–1947) formed General Motors.


The Ford Model T was introduced.


A radio failed to work in a vehicle that was outside during a thunderstorm. The technician checked the fuses and verified that power was reaching the radio. Then the technician noticed the antenna. It had been struck by lightning. Obviously, the high voltage from the lightning strike traveled to the radio receiver and damaged the circuits. Both the radio and the antenna were replaced to correct the problem.  SEE FIGURE 26–26.



appear at the beginning of each chapter to help students and instructors focus on the most important material in each chapter. The chapter objectives are based on specific ASE and NATEF tasks.



What Is an “SST?” Vehicle manufacturers often specify a special service tool (SST) to properly disassemble and assemble components, such as transmissions and other components. These tools are also called special tools and are available from the vehicle manufacturer or their tool supplier, such as Kent-Moore and Miller tools.

TECH TIP Right to TIghten Whenever removing any automotive component, it is wise to screw the bolts back into the holes a couple of threads by hand. This ensures that the right bolt will be used in its original location.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS are based on the author’s own experience and provide answers to many of the most common questions asked by students and beginning service technicians.


Most of these “locking nuts” are grouped together

and are commonly referred to as revailing torque nuts. This


feature real-world advice and “tricks of the trade” from ASE-certified master technicians.

means that the nut will hold its tightness or torque and not loosen with movement or vibration.


provide students with additional technical information to give them a greater understanding of a specific task or procedure.

SAFETY TIP Shop Cloth Disposal Always dispose of oily shop cloths in an enclosed container to prevent a fire.  SEE FIGURE 1–69. Whenever oily cloths are thrown together on the floor or workbench, a chemical reaction can occur, which can ignite the cloth even without an open flame. This process of ignition without an open flame is called spontaneous combustion.


alert students to possible hazar...

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